Imura Lab

大阪工業大学 知的財産学部 英語教育研究室


Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language
Julian Bamford, Richard R. Day (eds.) (2004)

This book provides over one hundread hands-on activities based on extensive reading. The activities extend across a wide range of purposes and target skills: (1) Organizing Extensive Reading, (2) Oral Fluency, (3) Writing, (4)Reading, and (5) Vocabulary.

Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency
Norman Segalowitz 著 (2010)

Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency
© Routledge

Fluency ← "fluidity"

Filmore (1979) On Fluency
(1) The ability to talk at length with a minimum of pauses.
(2) The ability to package the message easily into "semantically dense" sentences without resources to lots of filler material.
(3) The ability to speak appropriately in different kinds of social contexts and situations, meeting the special communicative demantds each may have.
(4) The ability to use the language creatively and imaginatively by expressing ideas in new ways, to use humor, to make puns, to use metaphors, and so on.

Three Aspects of Fluency
(1) Cognitive Fluency: ability of the L2 speaker to smoothly express thoughts in L2 speech
(2) Utterance Fluency: objective features of an uttarance
(3) Perceived Fluency: subjective features of what listeners perceive

Objective Measures of Fluency
(1) Speech rate: number of syllables divided per total time
(2) Articulation rate: number of syllables divided by phonation time
(3) Phonation time ratio: phonation time divided by total time
(4) Mean length of runs: number of syllables divided by number of silent pauses
(5) Number of silent pauses per minute: number of silent pauses divided by total time
(6) Meanpause duration: total length of silent pauses divided by total number of silent pauses
(7) Number of filled pauses per minute: number of filled pauses divided by total time
(8) Number of repairs per minute: number of repetitions, restarts and repairs divided by total time
(9) Means of syllable duration: phonation time divided by number of syllables
(10) Average syllable duration: phonation time divided by number of syllables


Introducint Performative Pragmatics
Douglas Robinson 著 (2006)

Performative Pragmatics
© Routledge

Metaphor of language
While constative linguistics sees language as machine, performative linguistics sees language as drama.


Constative Linguistics Performative Linguistics
forms / structure / function message
langue parole
competence performance
words referring to something people doing something with words
objectivity subjectivity
truth false condition interpretation
analysis integration


Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition  Stephen D. Krashen 著 (1982/1987)

© Prentice-Hall

"The solution to our problems in language teaching lies not in expensive equipment, exotic methods, sophisticated linguistic analysis, or new laboratories, but in full utilization of what we already have, speakers of the languages using them for real communication... language acquisition occurs when language is used for what it was designed for, communication." (p.1)

"Language acquisition is a subconscious process; language acquirers are not usually aware of the fact that they are acquiring language, but are only aware of the fact that they are using the language for communication." (p.10)


The Input Hypothesis  Stephen D. Krashen 著 (1982)

Input Hypothesis
© Longman

"The Input Hypothesis claims that humans acquire language in only one way―by understanding messages, or by receiving 'comprehensible input'." (p. 2)

"Language teacher is first of al someone who can present messages of interest, help make them comprehensible, and put students at ease; in short, a communicator. The grammarian function of the langage teacher is very secondary." (p.58)

Five hypotheses of second language acquisition:

  1. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
  2. The Natural Order Hypothesis
  3. The Monitor Hypothesis
  4. The Input Hypothesis
  5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis

(keywords) comprehensible input, i + 1, meaning negotiation